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Effect of processing techniques at industrial scale on orange juice antioxidant and beneficial health compounds
- Gil-Izquierdo, A., Gil, M.I., Ferreres, F.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2002 v.50 no.18 pp. 5107-5114
- orange juice, pasteurization, freezing, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, vitamin content, oxidation, orange pulp
- Phenolic compounds, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in orange juices manufactured by different techniques. Five processes at industrial scale (squeezing, mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing) used in commercial orange juice manufacturing were studied. In addition, domestic squeezing (a hand processing technique) was compared with commercial squeezing (an industrial FMC single-strength extraction) to evaluate their influences on health components of orange juice. Whole orange juice was divided into soluble and cloud fractions after centrifugation. Total and individual phenolics were analyzed in both fractions by HPLC. Commercial squeezing extracted 22% more phenolics than hand squeezing. The freezing process caused a dramatic decrease in phenolics, whereas the concentration process caused a mild precipitation of these compounds to the juice cloud. In pulp, pasteurization led to degradation of several phenolic compounds, that is, caffeic acid derivatives, vicenin 2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), and narirutin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside) with losses of 34.5, 30.7, and 28%, respectively. Regarding vitamin C, orange juice produced by commercial squeezing contained 25% more of this compound than domestic squeezing. Mild and standard pasteurization slightly increased the total vitamin C content as the contribution from the orange solids parts, whereas concentration and freezing did not show significant changes. The content of L-ascorbic acid provided 77-96% of the total antioxidant capacity of orange juice. Mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing did not affect the total antioxidant capacity of juice, but they did, however, in pulp, where it was reduced by 47%.