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Red wine making by immobilized cells and influence on volatile composition

Tsakiris, A., Sipsas, V., Bekatorou, A., Mallouchos, A., Koutinas, A.A.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2004 v.52 no.5 pp. 1357-1363
winemaking, grape must, glucose, batch fermentation, wine yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, immobilized cells, raisins, black currants, bioreactors, wine quality, volatile organic compounds, odor compounds, odors, flavor, temperature
Red wine making using yeast cells immobilized in two types of raisin berries, at various temperatures (6-30 °C), was studied. A modification of the batch bioreactor was used to separate the grape skins used for color extraction from the biocatalyst and the fermenting grape must. The evaluation of the immobilized biocatalysts was made on terms of productivity and organoleptic quality, including color intensity and formation of volatiles. The immobilized cells were found capable of low-temperature wine making, producing red wines containing more than 11% v/v alcohol in 8 days at 6 °C. The quality of wines was examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS analysis and sensory evaluation. Higher alcohol concentrations were decreased, and ethyl acetate concentrations increased by the drop of temperature. Many esters, alcohols, carbonyls, and miscellaneous compounds were identified in wines produced by immobilized cells, revealing no significant qualitative differences as compared to wines produced by free cells. The sensory evaluation showed that the best red wine was produced at 6 °C.