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Effects of zinc complexes on the distribution of zinc in calcareous soil and zinc uptake by maize

Alvarez, J.M., Rico, M.I.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2003 v.51 no.19 pp. 5760-5767
Zea mays, corn, zinc, nutrient uptake, nutrient content, mineral content, soil nutrients, nutrient availability, fertilizer application, zinc fertilizers, chelates, leaching, water solubility, calcareous soils, dry matter accumulation, seedlings
The movement and availability of Zn from six organic Zn sources in a Typic Xerorthent (calcareous) soil were compared by incubation, column assay, and in a greenhouse study with maize (Zea mays L.). Zinc soil behavior was studied by sequential, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, and Mehlich-3 extractions. In the incubation experiment, the differences in Zn concentration observed in the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction strongly correlated with Zn uptake by plants in the greenhouse experiment. Zinc applied to the surface of soil columns scarcely moved into deeper layers except for Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) that showed the greatest distribution of labile Zn throughout the soil and the highest proportion of leaching of the applied Zn. In the upper part of the column, changes in the chemical forms of all treatments occurred and an increase in organically complexed and amorphous Fe oxide-bound fractions was detected. However, the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction was not detected. The same results were obtained at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant increases were found in plant dry matter yield and Zn concentration as compared with the control treatment without Zn addition. Increasing Zn rate in the soil increased dry matter yield in all cases but Zn concentration in the plant increased only with Zn-EDTA and Zn-ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate (EDDHA) fertilizers. Higher Zn concentration in plants (50.9 mg kg-1) occurred when 20 mg Zn kg-1 was added to the soil as Zn-EDTA. The relative effectiveness of the different Zn carriers in increasing Zn uptake was in the order: Zn-EDTA > Zn-EDDHA > Zn-heptagluconate > or = Zn-phenolate or approximately = Zn-polyflavonoid or approximately = Zn-lignosulfonate.