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Compared use of HPLC and FZCE for cluster analysis of Triticum spp and for the identification of T. durum adulteration

Bonetti, A., Marotti, I., Catizone, P., Dinelli, G., Maietti, A., Tedeschi, P., Brandolini, V.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2004 v.52 no.13 pp. 4080-4089
Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, durum wheat, Triticum aestivum, wheat, cultivars, wheat flour, gliadin, albumins, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, food analysis, adulterated products, cultivar identification
Wheat quality criteria continually evolve in response to market pressure and consumer preference. Characterization of cereal cultivars for quality and agronomic properties, have widely shown the importance of the protein content to ensure good quality products. The aim of this work is a comparison of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) in the identification of Italian wheat cultivars and detection of durum wheat flour adulteration. Mainly alcohol soluble (gliadins) and water soluble (albumins) proteins were extracted from 14 common wheat cultivars and from 9 durum wheat cultivars. In RP-HPLC chromatograms, wheat albumins and gliadins eluted between 3 and 9 min and between 10 and 42 min, respectively. Even if the chosen chromatographic conditions (reversed phase) did not permit a complete resolution of hydrophilic proteins such as albumins, a good reproducibility was observed for both albumins and gliadins. In FZCE electropherograms, wheat albumins and gliadins migrated between 8 and 14 min and 16-25 min, respectively. A good reproducibility was found for wheat albumins, while the relatively poor reproducibility of gliadin fractions was a consequence of the selected separation conditions aimed to separate in the same run either hydrophilic (albumins) and alcohol-soluble (gliadins) proteins. The principal component analysis (PCA) of HPLC and FZCE data evidenced that both techniques allowed the univocal identification of the great proportion of investigated wheat cultivars. Three peaks were exclusively detected in RP-HPLC chromatograms of common wheat cultivars, while three unique peaks were found in FZCE electropherograms of common wheat cultivars. These peaks were investigated as a basis for detecting and estimating the adulteration of durum wheat flour with flour from common wheat. The direct relationship between the area of the peaks and adulteration level enabled standard curves to be constructed. The standard curves showed that adulteration may be quantified by either RP-HPLC or FZCE.