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Analysis of genotypic and environmental effects on rice starch. 2. Thermal and retrogradation properties

Xu, L., Xie, J., Kong, X., Bao, J.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2004 v.52 no.19 pp. 6017-6022
Oryza sativa, rice, grain crops, varieties, genotype-environment interaction, seasonal variation, environmental factors, food quality, cooking quality, genetic variation, rice starch, retrogradation, thermal properties, gelatinization, food processing quality, China
Eight rice varieties with wide diversity in apparent amylose content (AC) were selected and planted in the early (HZE) and late season (HZL) in Hangzhou and in the winter season in Hainan (HN) for two consecutive years to study the genotypic and environmental effects on starch thermal and retrogradation properties of grain. Genotypic variation (all at P < 0.01) accounted for >56% of the total variation for onset (T(o)), peak (T(p)), and completion (T(c)) temperature, width at half-peak height (deltaT1/2) of gelatinization, enthalpy (deltaH(r)) of retrograded starch, percentage of retrogradation (R%), and 45.8% for enthalpy (deltaH(g)) of gelatinization. Seasonal variation accounted for about one-fifth for T(o), T(p), and T(c) and one-third for deltaH(g), but less for T1/2, deltaH(r), and R% of the total variation, indicating that T(o), T(p), T(c), and deltaH(g) were highly affected by seasonal environment in addition to the genotypic variation. The T(o), T(p), T(c), and deltaH(g) in HZL were much smaller than those in HZE and HN. Correlation analysis for the eight genotypes showed that AC was significantly correlated with deltaH(g) (r = -0.83, P < 0.01) and R% (r = 0.734, P < 0.05). deltaH(g) was also positively correlated with T(c) (r = 0.878, P < 0.05), but it did not have any correlation with deltaH(r), whereas the latter was positively correlated with R% (r = 0.994, P < 0.001). The intercorrelation of T(o), T(p), T(c), and deltaT1/2 themselves was significant at P < 0.001. The correlation analysis results suggest that there are different molecular mechanisms to regulate thermal properties (T(o), T(p), T(c), and deltaH(g)) and retrogradation properties (deltaH(r) and R%) as affected by environmental conditions. The implications of the results for rice breeders and starch-based food processors are discussed.