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Metabolic pathway of cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in rats

Ichiyanagi, T., Shida, Y., Rahman, M.M., Hatano, Y., Matsumoto, H., Hirayama, M., Konishi, T.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2005 v.53 no.1 pp. 145-150
cyanidin, anthocyanins, intestinal absorption, metabolism, oral administration, metabolites, blood plasma, rats, intravenous injection
For better understanding of the physiological function of anthocyanins, the absorption and metabolism of cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (Cy3G), which is one of the major anthocyanins in colored food materials, were precisely investigated. Combining two modalities newly developed, that is, highly sensitive semi-micro-HPLC and vein cannulation, Cy3G and its four major metabolites (M1-M4) were detected in the blood plasma of rats after oral administration of Cy3G (100 mg/kg of body mass). The plasma concentration of Cy3G reached its maximum at 15 min after the ingestion. Metabolite 2 (M2) and metabolite 3 (M3) showed their maximum plasma levels at 15 and 30 min, respectively, whereas metabolite 1 (M1) and metabolite 4 (M4) showed their maximum levels at 60 and 120 min, respectively. The maximum plasma concentrations of the four metabolites were in the following order: M3 (21 nM) > M4 (20 nM) > M1 (8.5 nM) > M2 (5 nM). When Cy3G was directly injected into the neck vein, only M2 and M3 were detected in the plasma, indicating that both M1 and M4 were produced during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Tandem MS analysis of the metabolites showed that M2 and M3 were monomethylated Cy3G, while M1 and M4 were glucuronides of Cy and methylated Cy, respectively. M3 was assigned as peonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (Pn3G) from the comparison of the retention time of authentic Pn3G.