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Effects of ripening, cultivar differences, and processing on the carotenoid composition of mango

Mercadante, A.Z., Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1998 v.46 no.1 pp. 128-130
mangoes, fruit juices, Mangifera indica, cultivars, ripening, vitamin A, vitamin content, carotenoids, chemical composition, geographical variation, high performance liquid chromatography, Brazil
The carotenoid composition of mangoes produced in Brazil was determined by HPLC to appraise the effects of some influencing factors. Total carotenoid rose from 12.3 to 38.0 micrograms/g in the cultivar Keitt and from 17.0 to 51.2 micrograms /g in the cultivar Tommy Atkins from the mature-green to the ripe stage. Ripenin g alterations occurred principally in the major carotenoids, violaxanthin and be ta-carotene. In the Keitt mangoes, all-trans-beta-carotene, all-trans-violaxathi n, and 9-cis-violaxanthin (location of cis double bond tentative) increased from 1.7, 5.4, and 1.7 micrograms/g in the mature-green fruits to 6.7, 18.0, and 7.2 micrograms/g, respectively, in the ripe fruits. In the Tommy Atkins cultivar, t hese carotenoids went from 2.0, 6.9, and 3.3 micrograms/g to 5.8, 22.4, and 14.5 micrograms/g, respectively, on ripening. In both cultivars, the small amount of 13-cis-violaxanthin practically disappeared on ripening. Geographic effects app eared to be substantial. In commercially processed mango juice, violaxanthin was not detected, auroxanthin appeared at an appreciable level, and beta-carotene b ecame the principal carotenoid.