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Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewurztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis Sonn.) fruit

Ong, P.K.C., Acree, T.E.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1999 v.47 no.2 pp. 665-670
wines, Vitis vinifera, varieties, Litchi chinensis, canned fruit, flavor compounds, rapid methods, chemical analysis
GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewurztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewurztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewurztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oside, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewurztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewurztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewurztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewuztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewurztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the levels of the 3 monoterpenes when compared to those from New York State, which could be attributed to differences in viticultural and enological practices between regions.