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Volatile components of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Echinacea species
- Mazza, G., Cottrell, T.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1999 v.47 no.8 pp. 3081-3085
- Echinacea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, volatile compounds, medicinal plants, chemical analysis, chemical constituents of plants, Echinacea pallida
- The headspace volatile components of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallido, and E. purpurea were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 70 compounds were identified in the samples. All plant tissues, irrespective of the species, contain acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, camphene, hexanal, beta-pinene, and limonene. The main headspace constituents of the aerial parts of the plant are beta-myrcene, alpha-pinene, limonene, camphene, beta-pinene, trans-ocimene, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-methyl-4-pentenal. The major headspace components of root tissue are alpha-phellandrene (present only in the roots of E. purpurea and E. angustifolia), dimethyl sulfide, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, acetaldehyde, camphene, 2-propanal, and limonene. Aldehydes, particularly butanals and propanals, make up 41-57% of the headspace of root tissue, 19-29% of the headspace of the leaf tissue, and only 6-14% of the headspace of flower and stem tissues. Terpenoids including alpha- and beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, ocimene, limonene, camphene, and terpinene make up 81-91% of the headspace of flowers and stems, 46-58% of the headspace of the leaf tissue, and only 6-21% of the roots. Of the 70 compounds identified, >50 are reported in Echinacea for the first time.