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Genetic selection for enhanced bioavailable levels of iron in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

Welch, R.M., House, W.A., Beebe, S., Cheng, Z.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2000 v.48 no.8 pp. 3576-3580
diet, Phaseolus vulgaris, plant breeding, iron, nutrient content, bioavailability, rats, seeds, beans, zinc, selection criteria, tannins, phytic acid, phosphatidylinositols, artificial selection, genotype, chemical constituents of plants
The bioavailability of Fe from 24 select genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds containing a range of concentrations of Fe, myo-inositol pentaphosphate plus phytic acid (IP5+IP6), and tannins was studied using a rat model. Bean accessions, selected from field trials for their variations in Fe, phytate, and tannin seed concentrations, were grown in a greenhouse in nutrient solutions radiolabeled with (59)Fe. Mature seeds were autoclaved and lyophilized. Test meals (containing 1 g of dried bean, 0.5 g of sucrose, and 1 g of basal Fe-deficient diet) were fed to marginally Fe-depleted weanling rats over a 3-h period; rats were radioassayed in a gamma-spectrometer immediately after feeding and daily thereafter for the next 10 d. Radioiron retention data were used to calculate percent Fe absorption (i.e., Fe bioavailability) from the meals. Seed Fe concentrations ranged from 52 to 157 microgram g-1 dry weight. There was a tendency to also select for higher Zn concentrations in the beans when selecting for high Fe concentrations. The Fe bioavailability to rats from test meals depended on the genotype and varied from 53% to 76% of the total Fe. Bean genotypes with higher seed Fe concentrations resulted in increased amounts of bioavailable Fe to rats. There was no significant correlation between the Fe concentration in different bean genotypes and Fe bioavailability to rats attributable to variations in IP5+IP6 or tannins, even though these antinutrients varied widely (i.e., from 19.6 to 29.2 micromol of IP5+IP6 g-1 and from 0.35 to 2.65 mg of tannins g-1 in the test meals. Other unknown seed factors (i.e., antinutrients or promoter substances) may be contributing factors affecting Fe bioavailability from bean seeds.