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Structural and compositional characteristics of canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.)
- Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., Hucl, P.J., Sosulski, F.W.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1997 v.45 no.8 pp. 3049-3055
- Phalaris canariensis, chemical composition, chemical treatment, cystine, dietary fiber, flour, genotype, glutelins, granules, hulls, industrial applications, linolenic acid, lysine, nutritive value, phenylalanine, prolamins, starch, sugars, threonine, tryptophan, wheat, wheat protein
- Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) has small elliptical grains with hulls, which are covered with very fine silicious spicules that are severe skin irritants and potentially carcinogenic. Because chemical treatments and a glabrous genotype are now available for eliminating the spicules, the chemical composition of the dehulled groat was determined to evaluate its potential food and industrial applications. Canaryseed groats contained 61.0% starch, which comprised small polygonal granules with diameters of 1.5-3.5 micrometers. The groats averaged 18.7% protein compared to 15.0% in wheat, and the proportions of prolamin and glutelin in the protein averaged 77.7%, exceeding that in the control wheat protein of 73.5%. Canaryseed proteins were more deficient in lysine and threonine than wheat proteins but were very rich in cystine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. For a cereal, canaryseed groats were very high in crude fat, 8.7%, and purified total lipid, 11.0%, containing 55% linoleic, 29% oleic, 11% palmitic, and 2.5% linolenic acids. The groat and roller-milled flours were low in dietary fiber, soluble sugars, and total ash. The composition of small granule starch and gluten-like proteins, rich in tryptophan, suggests unique functional and nutritional properties for canaryseed groats.