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Structural and compositional characteristics of canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.)

Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., Hucl, P.J., Sosulski, F.W.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1997 v.45 no.8 pp. 3049-3055
Phalaris canariensis, chemical composition, chemical treatment, cystine, dietary fiber, flour, genotype, glutelins, granules, hulls, industrial applications, linolenic acid, lysine, nutritive value, phenylalanine, prolamins, starch, sugars, threonine, tryptophan, wheat, wheat protein
Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) has small elliptical grains with hulls, which are covered with very fine silicious spicules that are severe skin irritants and potentially carcinogenic. Because chemical treatments and a glabrous genotype are now available for eliminating the spicules, the chemical composition of the dehulled groat was determined to evaluate its potential food and industrial applications. Canaryseed groats contained 61.0% starch, which comprised small polygonal granules with diameters of 1.5-3.5 micrometers. The groats averaged 18.7% protein compared to 15.0% in wheat, and the proportions of prolamin and glutelin in the protein averaged 77.7%, exceeding that in the control wheat protein of 73.5%. Canaryseed proteins were more deficient in lysine and threonine than wheat proteins but were very rich in cystine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. For a cereal, canaryseed groats were very high in crude fat, 8.7%, and purified total lipid, 11.0%, containing 55% linoleic, 29% oleic, 11% palmitic, and 2.5% linolenic acids. The groat and roller-milled flours were low in dietary fiber, soluble sugars, and total ash. The composition of small granule starch and gluten-like proteins, rich in tryptophan, suggests unique functional and nutritional properties for canaryseed groats.