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Response of Selected Forage Grasses to Herbicides

R. W. Bovey, M. A. Hussey
Agronomy journal 1991 v.83 no.4 pp. 709-713
forage crops, grasses, herbicides, weed control, phytotoxicity, field experimentation, greenhouse production, Panicum coloratum, crop yield, Texas
Early spring applications of herbicides were evaluated for weed control and phytotoxicity to kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) during establishment. In 1986, areas treated with MSMA (monosodium salt of methylarsonic acid) at 2.2 and 4.5 kg ha⁻¹ or chlorsulfuron [ 2-chloro-N-[ [(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) amino] carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide] at 0.018 and 0.035 kg ha⁻¹ reduced weed yield to <900 and increased kleingrass yield to >9300 kg ha⁻¹. Untreated areas produced 5400 and 4300 kg ha⁻¹ of weeds and kleingrass, respectively. In 1988, kleingrass yields were increased only where weeds were removed by hand or MSMA. Bensulide [O,Obis(1-methylethyl) S-[2-[(phenylsulfonyI) amino] ethyl] phosphorodithioate], butylate [S-ethyl bis(2-methylpropyl)bamothioate], siduron [N-(2-methylcyclohexyl)-N'-phenylurea], and sulfometuron [2-[[[[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoic acid) were highly injurious to kleingrass. In 1989, no treatment increased kleingrass yields. In the greenhouse, ‘Selection 75’ kleingrass, common buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), ‘WW-Spar’ and ‘WW-Ironmaster’ old world bluestem [Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum (Hack.) Celarier and Harlan], ‘Bell’ rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth), ‘Cowboy’ laurisiagrass (Penniseturn orientale L.), ‘Haskel’ sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.], ‘Lameta’ Indiangrass (Sorghustrum nutans L.), 'Alamo' switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and ‘Palar’ Wilman lovegrass (Eragrosfis superba Peyn.) were treated. Based on seedling weight, most grasses tolerated butylate, MSMA, 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid], chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron (2-[[[[(4 methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoic acid]. Buffelgrass, Indiangrass, and old world bluestem tolerated sulfometuron. Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(-methylethyl)- 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and propazine [6-chloro-N,N'- bis(l-methylethyl)-l,3,5-triazine-2,4diamine] were sometimes injurious, but bensulide and siduron were highly injurious to most grasses. Cooperative investigation of the USDA-ARS and the Texas Agric. Exp. Stn., Texas A&M Univ.