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The percentage and viability of weed seeds recovered in the feces of farm animals and their longevity when buried in manure

Harmon, G.W., Keim, F.D.
Agronomy journal 1934 v.26 no.9 pp. 762-767
weeds, weed control, seeds, seed germination, viability, feces, animal manures, livestock, seed treatment, acid treatment, duration, Nebraska
1. An average of 14.2% uninjured seeds was recovered from calves, horse, sheep, hogs, and chickens fed various weed seeds. 2. The germination tests without acid treatment were higher for the recovered seeds than for the unfed seeds. 3. The total germination of the recovered seeds when treated with sulfuric acid averaged 0.2% less than the total germination of the unfed seeds. 4. There were only one-half as many seeds recovered during the 48- to 80-hour period as during the 0 to 48-hour period. The former gave only one-half as high a germination as did those of the shorter period. 5. An average of 6.7% viable seeds was recovered from each 1,000 seeds fed to all the animals. 6. After being buried 1 month in cow manure and horse manure, only velvet weed, bindweed, sweet clover, and peppergrass seeds were viable. Bindweed seeds germinated 1% after 3 months in manure, while all other seeds were dead.