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Prevalence of β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance, and virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Slovakia
- Drugdová, Zuzana, Kmeť, Vladimír
- Biologia 2012 v.68 no.1 pp. 11-17
- Escherichia coli, ampicillin, beta-lactamase, ceftiofur, chickens, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, farms, florfenicol, genes, human population, markets, minimum inhibitory concentration, phenotype, plasmids, polymerase chain reaction, replicon, risk, streptomycin, tetracycline, virulence, Slovakia
- The incidence of infections due to organisms resistant to β-lactam antibiotics has increased sharply in recent years. The goal of this study was to investigate the β-lactam resistance in 151 Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens over a two-year period. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were present in 24 strains (16%), ESBL phenotype was identified by interpretative reading of minimal inhibitory concentration values of ceftriaxon (CRT ≥ 7.1 mg/L), ceftazidime (CAZ ≥ 3.4 mg/L) and ceftiofur (CFF ≥ 8.7 mg/L). PCR detection revealed the presence of the bla CMY-2 gene and CTX-M-1 group. We detected high resistance to ampicillin (92%), streptomycin (63%), tetracyclin (70%), ceftiofur (40%), floroquinolones (enrofloxacin 68%, ciprofloxacin 62%), florfenicol (18%), chloramphenicol (21%) and cotrimoxazol (43%). We also investigated the presence of virulence factors and mobile genetic elements, and performed plasmid replicon typing in 24 selected strains. The most prevalent integrase among the isolates was the integrase 1 with gene cassettes dfrA, aadA and genes sul1 and sul2. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistances (qnrS) were also detected in two strains. Plasmid typing showed that the Y and IncI1 were dominant plasmid replicons. The genes iss, kpsII, tsh, iutA were the most frequently detected virulence genes in ESBL-positive strains. These results demonstrate that broilers in Slovakian food markets and farms could be the source of ESBL-producing E. coli, as well as virulent and resistant strains representing a potential risk for the human population.