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Winter hardiness of medium red clover strains

Arny, A.C.
Agronomy journal 1924 v.16 no.4 pp. 268-278
Trifolium pratense, hay, strains, variety trials, winter hardiness, precipitation, temperature, crop yield, Minnesota, United States, Europe, Chile
In Minnesota, medium red clover seed produced in the Northern tier of the North Central and the North Intermountain states gave uniformly low percentages of winterkilling and averaged good yields of hay in both the first and second cuttings. Seed produced in Tennessee and Oregon did not give as uniformly satisfactory results as they produced farther north. The strains coming from Northern Europe winterkilled to a greater extent than the Northern-grown native strains, but on a very large majority of the plots a sufficient number of vigorous plants remained to give good yields, with few exceptions. The results with the strain from Australia were more variable than the results from the Northern European strains. Strains of medium red clover seed produced in France, Chile, and Italy winterkilled 81%, 89.5%, and 93.8%, respectively, and no measurable yields of hay were secured. Seed produced in the norhtern tier of states of the United States should be given preference in all reseedings made in these states in 1924 and following years. This is important in order that growers may be certain of having good-seed-yielding strains, which will produce seed of the hardy strains needed to maintain good stands in this section in the future. Until it can be known with reasonable certainty that seed shipped to the United States from north European countries has actually been produced there, such seed cannot be recommended. Seed produced in France, Chile, and Italy obviously has no place in Minnesota or other states of similar climate. In northern locations where stands obtained from these sources did come through the winter and produce yields, there was a good snow covering for their protection. Snow coverings cannot be relied on to remain during any winter in any of the northern states. Therefore, the fact that these strains did live through one winter can scarcely be interpreted as proof that their use throughout a period of years would be satisfactory. The conclusion is obvious that a livestock farmer who depends on clover to feed his herd cannot afford to sow anything but native northern-grown seed and can well afford to pay a premium for such seed.