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Peptide hormone-membrane interactions: the aggregational and conformational state of lipo-gastrin derivatives and their receptor binding affinity

Romano, R., Musiol, H.J., Weyher, E., Dufresne, M., Moroder, L.
Biopolymers 1992 v.32 no.11 pp. 1545-1558
myristic acid, lipoproteins, hormone receptors, molecular conformation, gastrins
The (2RS)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-mercaptoglycerol/-, (2RS)-1,2-dimyristoyl-3-mercaptoglycerol/-, and (2RS)-1-myristoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-mercaptoglycerol/ maleoyl-beta-alanyl-[Nle15]-human-gastrin-(2-17) adducts were prepared as lipo-gastrin derivatives of explicitly primary amphiphilic properties. As representative of this class of lipo-gastrins, the dimyristoyl derivative has been thoroughly characterized in its aggregational state since, among the three compounds, theoretically it should exhibit the lowest degree of lipid character. It aggregates in aqueous solution to form monodispersed unilamellar spherical vesicles with dislocation of the peptide moiety at the bilayer surface in predominantly unordered structure. The liposomes are remarkably stable toward solubilization with trifluoroethanol and toward vesicle to micelle transition with neutral and negatively charged surfactants even above their critical micellar concentrations. Asymmetric fusion with the detergent micelles induces polydispersion of the liposomes in terms of shape and size without affecting in significant manner the mode of display of the gastrin portions at the bilayer surface. Only the positively charged hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide provokes the collapse of the vesicles into mixed micelles with concomitant altered dislocation of the gastrin-peptide in the new aggregational state. Despite the lipid properties of the gastrin derivatives, i.e., formation of liposomes, they retain remarkable receptor affinities (IC50 = 1.5.10(-9) M for myristoyl-palmitoyl-gastrin, IC50 = 2.0.10(-9) M for di-myristoyl-gastrin and IC50 = 3.1.10(-9) M for dipalmitoyl-gastrin vs IC50 = 2.8.10(-10) M for Nle15-gastrin). Since the displacement of radio-labeled Nle15-gastrin from rat pancreatic acinar cell line membrane preparations by both the parent gastrin hormone and the three lipo-gastrins occurs in parallel manner, the data support a mechanism of receptor occupancy via accumulation of the gastrins at the membrane surface and their two-dimensional diffusion to the target receptor. Thereby the differentiated decrease of affinity in function of fatty acid chain length has to be attributed to the energetically more or less favored transfer of the monomers from the donor vesicles to the acceptor membranes. Moreover, according to this model migration of the lipo-gastrins with their interdigitating di-fatty-acyl moieties should be delayed, again in lipid structure-dependent manner, in comparison to the parent gastrin molecule, which is free to float in the membrane interfacial phase.