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Cellulose and clay in sand affects termiticide treatments
- Smith, J.L., Rust, M.K.
- Journal of economic entomology 1993 v.86 no.1 pp. 53-60
- Reticulitermes, mortality, insect control, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, sand, additives, cellulose, clay, Reticulitermes hesperus
- Increasing cellulose concentrations in sand treated with chlordane or chlorpyrifos significantly reduced mortality of Reticulitermes hesperus Banks in direct-exposure experiments. Apparently, chlordane and chlorpyrifos bind to cellulose particles, making them less available to workers. The addition of cellulose or clay to the sand increased mortality caused by cypermethrin. Large amounts of cellulose in sand treated with chlordane led to significantly greater tunneling than in sand treated with chlordane but without cellulose. Minimal mortality occurred in any of these chlordane tunneling trials. Termites tunneled into sand treated with chlorpyrifos only when the cellulose concentration reached 10 or 20%. Significant mortality occurred from tunneling in all sand conditions treated with chlorpyrifos regardless of cellulose concentration. High cellulose concentrations appear to influence the movement or detectability of chlorpyrifos by termites. Termites never tunneled in sand treated with cypermethrin regardless of cellulose concentration. Clay concentrations in sand treated with chlordane reduced tunneling distances compared with pure sand treated with chlordane. The presence of clay in the sand seems to reduce the binding of chlordane to the sand particles, promoting increased movement of chlordane into untreated sand. When clay concentrations reached 10 or 20%, termites tunneled in sand treated with chlorpyrifos. The high clay concentrations apparently bind the chlorpyrifos, making it less detectable and less toxic to tunneling termites. Termites never tunneled in sand treated with cypermethrin regardless of clay concentration.