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Dynamique de la sapiniere a bouleau jaune de l'est apres une epidemie de tordeuse des bourgeons de l'epinette

Pominville, P., Dery, S., Belanger, L.
The Forestry chronicle 1999 v.75 no.3 pp. 515-534
height, plant characteristics, Abies balsamea, Choristoneura fumiferana, mortality, defoliation, stand characteristics, Betula papyrifera, mixed forests, insecticides, pest control, surveys, stems, natural regeneration, Acer spicatum, tree age, canopy, microhabitats, ecological succession, species differences, Quebec
An outbreak of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), occurred between 1974 and 1987, in Quebec, in the eastern balsam fir, Abiesbalsamea (L.) Mill,-yellow birch, Betula alleghaniensis Britton, ecoclimatic sub-domain. The effect of this disruption has been assessed in mesic balsam fir stands killed during the outbreak, in mesic balsam fir stands partially damaged and in the following stands, also partially damaged: mesic yellow birch-balsam fir stands, mesic white birch, Betulapapyrifera Marsh.,-balsam fir stands, mesic balsam fir-yellow birch stands, mesic balsam fir-white birch stands and xeric balsam fir stands. To that effect, surveys were led before, immediately after, and about five years after the outbreak in two blocks that have not been protected with insecticides. These blocks, located in Charlevoix and in Shipshaw management units, are second growth stands originating from clearcuts which occurred about 50 years ago. Approximately five years after the outbreak, abundant coniferous regeneration was found everywhere except in the mesic yellow birch-balsam fir stand and in the dead mesic balsam fir stand, where softwood represented less than 50% of the regeneration. On the other hand, young softwood stems were located under the regeneration of white birch and of mountain maple, Acer spicatum Lam, in dead balsam fir stands, in balsam fir-white birch stands, as well as in living balsam fir stands and under mountain maple in yellow birch balsam fir stands and in balsam fir-yellow birch stands. Our age structures indicate that softwood advance growth was relatively rare in these stands. Thus, during the opening of the canopy by the spruce budworm, intolerant hardwoods and shrubs invaded the still available microsites. In the dead balsam fir stands, stocking of the dominant hardwood regeneration stems is equivalent to that of softwood. Thus, dead balsam fir stands are turning to mixed stands. Xeric stands will remain softwood stands since they show luxuriant softwood regeneration dominating in height. In the other stands, we will have to wait the harvest period before we can adequately assess succession.