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Effects of temperature and vector age on transmission of two Ohio strains of aster yellows phytoplasma by the aster leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

Murral, D.J., Nault, L.R., Hoy, C.W., Madden, L.V., Miller, S.A.
Journal of economic entomology 1996 v.89 no.5 pp. 1223-1232
Macrosteles quadrilineatus, aster yellows, disease transmission, disease vectors, age, ambient temperature, strains, mortality, vector competence, Callistephus chinensis, latent period, Ohio
Mean latent period and transmission rate of 2 strains (bolt and severe) of aster yellows phytoplasma in nymph and adult aster leafhoppers, Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes were studied under controlled conditions at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. There was a nonlinear relationship between mean latent period and temperature with shorter mean latent periods at higher temperatures (approx 20-25 d) than at lower temperatures (approx 40-80 d) for both aster yellows phytoplasma strains and both ages of leafhoppers. The proportion of leafhoppers that became vectors was significantly higher for bolt strain when leafhoppers acquired aster yellows phytoplasma as nymphs than as adults. However, there was no difference in the proportion that became vectors of the severe strain by the 2 age groups. Once leafhoppers became inoculative, the rate of transmission remained constant over their life spans when monitored by serial transfers at 48-h intervals. Increases in temperature and access time of leafhoppers increased the proportion of leafhoppers that became vectors after feeding on bolt strain-infected plants. Also, the effect of aster yellows phytoplasma exposure on life spans of leafhoppers was studied at 4 temperatures. At 25 and 30 degrees C, leafhoppers exposed to both aster yellows phytoplasma strains lived longer than those leafhoppers not exposed. Data can be used in an aster yellows epidemiological model to evaluate strategies for aster yellows management.