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Both hypersensitive and non-hypersensitive responses are associated with resistance in Salix viminalis against the gall midge Dasineura marginemtorquens
- Höglund, Solveig, Larsson, Stig, Wingsle, Gunnar
- Journal of experimental botany 2005 v.56 no.422 pp. 3215-3222
- insect pests, forest trees, genetic resistance, hydrogen peroxide, host-parasite relationships, plant pests, larval development, hypersensitive response, Salix viminalis, mortality, genotype, Dasineura, genetic variation, galls, pest resistance, forest pests
- Hypersensitivity responses (HR) play a major role in plant resistance to pathogens. It is often claimed that HR is also important in plant resistance to insects, although there is little unambiguous documentation. Large genotypic variation in resistance against the gall midge Dasineura marginemtorquens is found in Salix viminalis. Variation in larval performance and induced responses within a full-sib S. viminalis family is reported here; 36 sibling plants were completely resistant (larvae died within 48 h after egg hatch, no gall induction), 11 plants were totally susceptible, 25 plants were variable (living and dead larvae present on the same plant). Resistance was associated with HR, but to different degrees; 21 totally resistant genotypes showed typical HR symptoms (many distinct necrotic spots) whereas the remaining 15 genotypes showed no, or very few, such symptoms. Hydrogen peroxide, used as a marker for HR, was induced in genotypes expressing HR symptoms but not in resistant genotypes without symptoms, or in susceptible genotypes. These data suggest that production of hydrogen peroxide, and accompanying cell death, cannot explain larval mortality in the symptomless reaction. Another, as yet unknown, mechanism of resistance may be present. If so, then it is possible that this unknown mechanism also contributes to resistance in plants displaying HR. The apparent complexity observed in this interaction, with both visible and invisible plant responses associated with resistance against an adapted insect species, may have implications for the study of resistance factors in other plant-insect interactions.