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Improving wheat for bread and tortilla production by manipulating glutenin-to-gliadin ratio

Uthayakumaran, S., Lukow, O.M.
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2005 v.85 no.12 pp. 2111-2118
wheat flour, protein composition, glutenins, gliadin, dough, rheological properties, breadmaking, breadmaking quality, tortillas, food processing quality, breads, cultivars
Gluten, starch, water soluble material, and glutenin-rich and gliadin-rich proteins were extracted from three Canadian wheat cultivars representing the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) (cv Roblin), Canada Western Extra Strong (CWES) (cv Glenlea) and Canada Prairie Spring (CPS) (cv AC Crystal) classes having glutenin-to-gliadin (Glu:Gli) ratios of 0.70, 0.75 and 0.85 respectively, all giving the same high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit score (Glu-1 score) of 10. The resulting fractions were reconstituted to produce 18 mixtures of flour components, representing all combinations of Glu:Gli ratio and protein content observed in the original three flours. Dough rheological properties and baking (bread and tortilla) performance were determined using small-scale techniques. Within any of the cultivars, increasing the Glu:Gli ratio in a reconstituted dough system had significant effects on dough and end-use properties, causing increases in mixograph development time (MDT), maximum resistance (Rmax), pan bread loaf volume, tortilla dough maximum resistance and cooked tortilla puncture force. The CWRS wheat Roblin, proved to be best suited for pan bread at higher protein content and higher Glu:Gli ratio, and also produced a high protein tortilla of large diameter at a Glu:Gli ratio of 0.70. The CPS flour, AC Crystal, was good for making tortillas at protein contents of 110-130 g kg(-1) and at its original ratio of 0.85. The CWES wheat Glenlea, did not perform as well in bread or tortilla-making but in its role as a blending wheat, altering the Glu:Gli ratio of Glenlea to 0.70 may have an advantage by lowering mixing time without compromising baking properties. Manipulating the Glu:Gli ratio may make a wheat cultivar suitable for a particular end-product.