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Formation of volatile compounds during Bacillus subtilis fermentation of soya beans
- Owens, J.D., Allagheny, N., Kipping, G., Ames, J.M.
- Journal of the science of food and agriculture 1997 v.74 no.1 pp. 132-140
- soybeans, fermentation, Bacillus subtilis, volatile compounds, biosynthesis, roasting, cotyledons, autoclaving, odors, pyrazines
- The formation of volatile compounds during the Bacillus subtilis fermentation of cooked, roasted soya bean cotyledons was investigated. The materials examined were: dry roasted cotyledons; autoclaved, roasted cotyledons; and autoclaved, roasted cotyledons fermented for 18 h and 36 h at 35 degrees C. Growth of B subtilis led to the formation of many volatile compounds. The volatile compounds formed in the largest amounts during fermentation were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and trimethylpyrazine. Compounds present at concentrations exceeding their odour threshold values included nonanal, decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-octanone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 3,6-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, 2-pentylfuran, dimethyl sulfide, benzaldehyde and 2-methoxyphenol. Compounds found in 18 h fermented cotyledons which were absent, or present in much lower concentrations, in roasted or autoclaved cotyledons included several aliphatic ketones, acetic acid, two aliphatic esters, several pyrazines, 2-pentylfuran, dimethyl sulphide, 2-methoxyphenol and trimethyloxazole. The total mass of volatile compounds present after 36 h incubation was less than half that present after 18 h. This was mainly due to the disappearance of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine. The biogenesis of the volatile compounds is discussed.