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Formation of volatile compounds during Bacillus subtilis fermentation of soya beans

Owens, J.D., Allagheny, N., Kipping, G., Ames, J.M.
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 1997 v.74 no.1 pp. 132-140
soybeans, fermentation, Bacillus subtilis, volatile compounds, biosynthesis, roasting, cotyledons, autoclaving, odors, pyrazines
The formation of volatile compounds during the Bacillus subtilis fermentation of cooked, roasted soya bean cotyledons was investigated. The materials examined were: dry roasted cotyledons; autoclaved, roasted cotyledons; and autoclaved, roasted cotyledons fermented for 18 h and 36 h at 35 degrees C. Growth of B subtilis led to the formation of many volatile compounds. The volatile compounds formed in the largest amounts during fermentation were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and trimethylpyrazine. Compounds present at concentrations exceeding their odour threshold values included nonanal, decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-octanone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 3,6-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, 2-pentylfuran, dimethyl sulfide, benzaldehyde and 2-methoxyphenol. Compounds found in 18 h fermented cotyledons which were absent, or present in much lower concentrations, in roasted or autoclaved cotyledons included several aliphatic ketones, acetic acid, two aliphatic esters, several pyrazines, 2-pentylfuran, dimethyl sulphide, 2-methoxyphenol and trimethyloxazole. The total mass of volatile compounds present after 36 h incubation was less than half that present after 18 h. This was mainly due to the disappearance of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine. The biogenesis of the volatile compounds is discussed.