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Transport, degradation and cell wall-integration of XXFGol, a growth-regulating nonasaccharide of xyloglucan, in pea stems
- Warneck, H.M., Fulton, D.C., Seitz, H.U., Fry, S.C.
- Planta 1998 v.204 no.1 pp. 78-85
- growth retardation, inhibitors, Pisum sativum, xyloglucans, shoots, epicotyls, oligosaccharides, carbohydrate metabolism, isotope labeling, hydrolysis, transpiration, fucose, xylose, metabolites, seedlings, quantitative analysis, cell walls, xylem, glycosyltransferases, translocation (plant physiology), chemical constituents of plants, hemicellulose
- When [glucitol-3H]XXFGol (a NaB3H4-reduced xyloglucan nonasaccharide) was applied to excised shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress) at the base of the epicotyl, it inhibited growth in the elongation zone, 4-5 cm distal. Experiments were conducted to discover whether such 3H-oligosaccharides are translocated intact over this distance, or whether an intercellular second messenger would have to be postulated. After 24 h, 3H from [glucitol-3H]XXFGol and [glucitol-3H]XXXGol showed U-shaped distributions, with most 3H at the base and apex of the stem. Radioactivity from [fucosyl-3H]XXFG and [xylosyl-3]XXFG also moved acropetally, but did not concentrate at the apex, possibly owing to removal from the transpiration stream of fucose and xylose formed by partial hydrolysis of XXFG en route. When 10(-7) M [glucitol-3H]XXFGol was supplied, about 14 fmol.seedling-1 of apparently intact [3H]XXFGol was extractable from the elongation zone after 24 h. Larger amounts of degradation products were extractable (including free [3H]glucitol) and some wall-bound 3H-hemicellulose was present (presumably formed by the oligosaccharides acting as acceptor substrates for transglycosylation). We conclude that biologically active oligosaccharides of xyloglucan can move through the stem acropetally and that they are maintained at low steady-state concentrations by both hydrolysis and transglycosylation.