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Development of a combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure for Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F and its use to determine prevalence in fecal samples from slaughtered pigs
- Dahlenborg, M., Borch, E., Radstrom, P.
- Applied and environmental microbiology 2001 v.67 no.10 pp. 4781-4788
- Clostridium botulinum, cell culture, polymerase chain reaction, neurotoxins, genes, feces, swine, slaughter, detection, bacterial spores, geographical variation, seasonal variation, livestock production, enrichment culture, Sweden
- A specific and sensitive combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure was developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in fecal samples from slaughtered pigs. Two enrichment PCR assays, using the DNA polymerase rTth, were constructed. One assay was specific for the type B neurotoxin gene, and the other assay was specific for the type E and F neurotoxin genes. Based on examination of 29 strains of C. botulinum, 16 strains of other Clostridium spp., and 48 non-Clostridium strains, it was concluded that the two PCR assays detect C. botulinum types B, E, and F specifically. Sample preparation prior to the PCR was based on heat treatment of feces homogenate at 70 degrees C for 10 min, enrichment in tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract broth at 30 degrees C for 18 h, and DNA extraction. The detection limits after sample preparation were established as being 10 spores per g of fecal sample for nonproteolytic type B, and 3.0 x 10(3) spores per g of fecal sample for type E and nonproteolytic type F with a detection probability of 95%. Seventy-eight pig fecal samples collected from slaughter houses were analyzed according to the combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure, and 62% were found to be PCR positive with respect to the type B neurotoxin gene. No samples were positive regarding the type E and F neurotoxin genes, indicating a prevalence of less than 1.3%. Thirty-four (71%) of the positive fecal samples had a spore load of less than 4 spores per g. Statistical analysis showed that both rearing conditions (outdoors and indoors) and seasonal variation (summer and winter) had significant effects on the prevalence of C. botulinum type B, whereas the effects of geographical location (southern and central Sweden) were less significant.