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Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in traditional acetic acid fermentation of rice vinegar (Komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (Kurosu) produced in Japan
- Nanda, K., Taniguchi, M., Ujike, S., Ishihara, N., Mori, H., Ono, H., Murooka, Y.
- Applied and environmental microbiology 2001 v.67 no.2 pp. 986-990
- Acetobacter pasteurianus, random amplified polymorphic DNA technique, rice, fermentation, ribosomal DNA, intergenic DNA, DNA fingerprinting, repetitive sequences, Japan
- Bacterial strains were isolated from samples of Japanese rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) fermented by the traditional static method. Fermentations have never been inoculated with a pure culture since they were started in 1907. A total of 178 isolates were divided into groups A and B on the basis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of strains belonging to each group showed similarities of more than 99% with Acetobacter pasteurianus. Group A strains overwhelmingly dominated all stages of fermentation of both types of vinegar. Our results indicate that appropriate strains of acetic acid bacteria have spontaneously established almost pure cultures during nearly a century of komesu and kurosu fermentation.