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Antioxidants in the apoplast and symplast of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaves: seasonal variations and responses to changing ozone concentrations in air
- Luwe, M.
- Plant, cell and environment 1996 v.19 no.3 pp. 321-328
- Fagus sylvatica, ozone, air pollution, glutathione, ascorbic acid, seasonal variation, leaves, reduction, oxidation, metabolic detoxification, oxidoreductases, enzyme activity, plant anatomy, dehydroascorbic acid, glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate), symplast, Germany
- Concentrations of the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione were measured in the apoplast of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaves and in leaf tissue. During early leaf development, reduced ascorbate (ASC) was almost absent from the apoplast, whereas levels of oxidized ascorbate (DHA) were high. Less than 20% of the apoplastic ascorbate was reduced. ASC increased towards midsummer, reaching top levels of about 4 mol m-3 apoplast volume in July and August. Reduction increased to 60-75% in summer. Neither DHA reductase nor glutathione was detected in the apoplast of beech leaves. Levels of apoplastic ascorbate were compared with ambient concentrations of ozone in air. Statistical analysis indicated a significant interrelation between atmospheric ozone and apoplastic ascorbate. In midsummer of 1993, contents of DHA were increased in the apoplast when ozone concentrations were high. Apoplastic ASC was also positively correlated with ambient ozone concentrations, but with a delay of 3 to 7 d. In leaf tissue, levels of ascorbate were between 17 and 21 micromoles g-1 FW in summer. Except for late April and November, more than 95% of the intracellular ascorbate was reduced. Glutathione contents were lowest during the summer. Oxidation was increased in spring and autumn, when apoplastic ascorbate was also largely oxidized. Usually, 80 to 90% of the glutathione was reduced. During the summer, intracellular concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were increased, with a delay of about 1 d following periods of high ambient ozone concentrations. The transitory accumulation of GSSG may be explained by slow enzymatic regeneration of glutathione.