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Induction of apoptosis by ginseng saponin metabolite in U937 human monocytic leukemia cells
- Kang, K.A., Lim, H.K., Kim, S.U., Kim, Y.W., Kim, W.T., Chung, H.S., Choo, M.K., Kim, D.H., Kim, H.S., Shim, M.J.
- Journal of food biochemistry 2005 v.29 no.1 pp. 27-40
- Panax pseudoginseng, plant extracts, chemical composition, saponins, cytotoxins, cytotoxicity, structure-activity relationships, humans, leukemia, cell culture, apoptosis, anticarcinogenic activity, viability, gene induction, enzyme activation
- We report the cytotoxicity of the ginseng saponin metabolite, Compound K (20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH901) on various human leukemia cell lines. Compound K had the most effect on U937, a human monocytic leukemia cell line among the tested cell lines. Compound K-treated U937 cells showed characteristics of apoptosis: an exposure of phosphatidylserine from the inner cell membrane to the outer cell membrane, the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Compound K induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bax, disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential, and by activating caspase 9 and caspase 3. Therefore, we suggest that Compound K inhibits U937 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase activation.