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Stimulatory effects of high-fat diets on colon cell proliferation depend on the type of dietary fat and site of the colon

Kim, D.Y., Chung, K.H., Lee, J.H.
Nutrition and cancer 1998 v.30 no.2 pp. 118-123
butter, nutrient intake, weight gain, food intake, energy intake, dietary fat, experimental diets, colon, cell division, feces, lipids, corn oil, fish oils, intestinal mucosa, animal models, rats, tallow
To compare the effects of various types of dietary fat on colon cell proliferation used as an intermediate biomarker for colon carcinogenesis, groups of 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of four high-fat diets (45% of total calories from corn oil, butter, beef tallow, and fish oil) for three weeks. As a control, a low-fat diet (15% of total calories from corn oil) was fed to a separate group. Cell proliferation was measured by in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA in the proximal and distal colon. Total lipids in feces were measured by a gravimetric method. There were significant differences in colon cell proliferation among the diet groups, where the high corn oil diet stimulated cell proliferation in proximal and distal colon compared with the high fish oil diet (p < 0.05). The protective effect of the high fish oil diet on cell proliferation was similar to that of the low corn oil diet. The effects of high beef tallow and butter diets on colon cell proliferation were highly dependent on sites of the colon, because the hyperproliferative effects by these diets were found only in the distal colon (p < 0.05). Fecal total lipids and fecal lipid concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary fat sources, in that the groups fed the saturated fats, such as butter and beef tallow, excreted more lipids into feces than did the groups fed the unsaturated fats, such as corn oil and fish oil. Fecal lipids were significantly correlated to colon cell proliferation in the way that distal colon cell proliferation increases as fecal lipids increase. Therefore, these data suggest that high levels of dietary fats may not always promote colon carcinogenesis, and the effects may be dependent on the types of dietary fat and sites of the colon.