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Relative contribution of calories from dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber in the promotion of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats

Jackson, C.D., Weis, C., Chen, J.J., Bechtel, D.H., Poirier, L.A.
Nutrition and cancer 1998 v.30 no.3 pp. 194-200
mammary neoplasms (animal), dietary fat, dietary carbohydrate, nutrient intake, energy intake, breast neoplasms, incidence, body weight, weight gain, synergism, nutrient-nutrient interactions, body fat, body protein, body composition, mathematical models, equations, diet, experimental diets, rats, animal models, dietary fiber, energy resources, duration, females
It is well known that caloric restriction inhibits, whereas excess calories promote, mammary tumorigenesis in rats. However, the relative contributions to carcinogenesis by calories derived from fat or from carbohydrate are not well established. To determine the relative effects of calories from fat or from carbohydrate, as well as any interaction of dietary fiber on the promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors, we fed isocalorically nine diets containing different ratios of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber to female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (30/group). Under conditions of isocaloric consumption, at or near ad libitum feeding, calories from dietary fat had approximately twofold greater promoting effect on final body weight and tumor incidence than calories derived from dietary carbohydrate. Dietary fiber had an inhibitory effect on tumor development, but the effect was evident only in the high-fat groups. Logistic regression analysis of tumor incidence gave beta-coefficient estimates for the relative effects of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber of 0.866, 0.189, and -4.281, respectively. Time-to-tumor analysis by the Weibull model indicated beta-estimates of 3.016, 3.324, and 5.825 for dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, respectively, indicating that fat shortens and fiber increases the length of time to tumor. The statistical model derived from these results also indicates a significant synergistic interaction of dietary fat and carbohydrate on final body weight and tumor incidence.