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Relative contribution of calories from dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber in the promotion of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats

Jackson, C.D., Weis, C., Chen, J.J., Bechtel, D.H., Poirier, L.A.
Nutrition and cancer 1998 v.30 no.3 pp. 194-200
body protein, energy resources, energy intake, dietary fat, mammary neoplasms (animal), dietary carbohydrate, nutrient intake, synergism, incidence, females, body fat, mathematical models, dietary fiber, body weight, equations, duration, rats, weight gain, nutrient-nutrient interactions, experimental diets, animal models, breast neoplasms
It is well known that caloric restriction inhibits, whereas excess calories promote, mammary tumorigenesis in rats. However, the relative contributions to carcinogenesis by calories derived from fat or from carbohydrate are not well established. To determine the relative effects of calories from fat or from carbohydrate, as well as any interaction of dietary fiber on the promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors, we fed isocalorically nine diets containing different ratios of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber to female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (30/group). Under conditions of isocaloric consumption, at or near ad libitum feeding, calories from dietary fat had approximately twofold greater promoting effect on final body weight and tumor incidence than calories derived from dietary carbohydrate. Dietary fiber had an inhibitory effect on tumor development, but the effect was evident only in the high-fat groups. Logistic regression analysis of tumor incidence gave beta-coefficient estimates for the relative effects of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber of 0.866, 0.189, and -4.281, respectively. Time-to-tumor analysis by the Weibull model indicated beta-estimates of 3.016, 3.324, and 5.825 for dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, respectively, indicating that fat shortens and fiber increases the length of time to tumor. The statistical model derived from these results also indicates a significant synergistic interaction of dietary fat and carbohydrate on final body weight and tumor incidence.