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Effects of different formulations of granular pesticides on birds

Stafford, T.R., Best, L.B., Fischer, D.L.
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 1996 v.15 no.9 pp. 1606-1611
fensulfothion, toxicity, granules, color, Passer domesticus, animal behavior, body weight, mortality, cholinesterase, enzyme activity, brain, blood plasma, nontarget organisms, environmental exposure, adverse effects, ecotoxicology, risk
Fensulfothion was formulated on granular pesticide carriers to evaluate the effects of carrier type (silica, clay, and corncob), pesticide load per granule (1/2, 1/8, and 1/32 of the LD50), granule size (0.2 to 0.6 and 1.0 to 1.4 mm), and granule color (white and blue) on avian risk from granular pesticides. Carrier type and pesticide load per granule were evaluated in a separate experiment from granule size and color. In both experiments, captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were offered the granular pesticide formulations in bands on soil surfaces. Bird behavior, body weight, survival, and brain and plasma cholinesterase activity were used to assess pesticide exposure. Silica and clay carrier types posed a greater risk to birds than corncob granules. Exposure also was greater with a higher pesticide load per granule. Findings were inconclusive regarding the effect of granule size and color on avian exposure to granular pesticides. Precipitation seemed to increase the possibility of dermal exposure to the pesticide. It is important to consider factors in addition to those used currently by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency when evaluating the risk to birds from granular pesticides.