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Heterotic effects of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations on agronomic traits of hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under an adequate moisture regime

Owuoche, J.O., Sears, R.G., Brown-Guedira, G.L., Gill, B.S., Fritz, A.K.
Euphytica 2003 v.132 no.1 pp. 67
Triticum aestivum, wheat, Secale cereale, rye, plant breeding, chromosome translocation, heterosis, agronomic traits, hybrids, grain yield, soil water content, dry matter accumulation, inflorescences, harvest index, yield components
Translocated chromosomes T1BL·1RS and T1AL·1RS have been widely used in many wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs to develop high yielding cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the heterotic effects of T1BL·1RS + T1AL·1RS, T1BL·1RS, and T1AL·1RS on yield and yield components of hybrid wheat grown under adequate moisture regimes. Thirteen hybrid wheats and seven parents with different chromosome constitutions relative to T1AL·1RS and T1BL·1RS were evaluated in a randomized complete block design. Variable performance was observed among the hybrids tested. Two of the three hybrids with T1BL·1RS + T1AL·1RS, produced 25.26% and 44.64% more grain than the hybrids with only T1BL·1RS. This was due to increased biomass, harvest index (HI) and spike density. However, the combination of these two translocations resulted in reduced kernels/spike, spikelets/spike and spike length compared to theT1BL·1RS translocation alone. When comparing closely related parents, the parent with T1AL·1RS produced 23.51% more grain yield than the non-translocated parent. The presence of T1AL·1RS resulted in 10.37% heterotic advantage for yield due to increased biomass, KW, and spike density. When the two wheat-rye translocated chromosomes are present in the same hybrid, T1AL·1RS seems to have a positive effect on yield through spike density and HI, but masks the effects of T1BL·1RS for some agronomic traits.