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Quantification and characterisation of cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitory anthocyanins in fruits of Amelanchier

Adhikari, D.P., Francis, J.A., Schutzki, R.E., Chandra, A., Nair, M.G.
Phytochemical analysis 2005 v.16 no.3 pp. 175-180
Amelanchier alnifolia, Amelanchier arborea, Amelanchier canadensis, fruits (plant anatomy), plant extracts, phytochemicals, anthocyanins, prostaglandin synthase, enzyme inhibition, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, chemical analysis, quantitative analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, spectral analysis, chemical structure, plant biochemistry, Michigan
The levels of bioactive anthocyanins in the fruits of Amelanchier alnifolia, A. arborea and A. canadensis have been determined by HPLC. Cyanidin 3-galactoside (1) was present in the fresh fruit of the three species at concentrations of 155, 390 and 165 mg/100 g, respectively. Cyanidin 3-glucoside (2) was present only in A. alnifolia and A. canadensis at concentrations of 54 and 48 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanins were confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR studies. At 100 ppm, anthocyanin mixtures from the three species inhibited cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 enzymes at 66 and 67%, 60 and 72%, and 51 and 76%, respectively. The positive controls used in the COX assays were aspirin, Celebrex and Vioxx at 180, 1.67 and 1.67 ppm, respectively, and showed 74 and 69%, 5 and 82% and 0 and 85% COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 and cyanidin (3) inhibited COX-1 enzyme 50.5, 45.62 and 96.36%, respectively, at 100 ppm, whereas COX-2 inhibition was the highest for 3 at 75%. In the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, anthocyanin mixtures at 10 ppm from the three species showed activities of 72, 73 and 68%, respectively, compared with 89, 87 and 98% for commercial anti-oxidants butylated hydoxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroxyquinone at 1.67, 2.2 and 1.67 ppm, respectively. At 10 ppm, compounds 1-3 inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70, 75 and 78%, respectively.