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Studies of spray application of microbial herbicides in relation to conidial propagule content of spray droplets and retention on target

Lawrie, J., Greaves, M.P., Down, V.M., Western, N.M.
Biocontrol science and technology 2002 v.12 no.1 pp. 107-119
Amaranthus retroflexus, spraying, conidia, droplets, hypocotyls, developmental stages, nozzles, inoculum density, mycelium, crops, canopy, mycoherbicides
This paper addresses the hypothesis that the spray application system used will affect the retention of spray deposits of microbial herbicides on different plant structures. There was greater spray retention on the hypocotyl of 4 to 6-true leaf Amaranthus retroflexus plants (20-31%) sprayed with an aerosol-producing laboratory sprayer than with a hydraulic nozzle (3-5%). Spray deposition and retention from the hydraulic nozzle was increased by 28-42% when the nozzle was used horizontally. Spray droplets generally contained the expected conidial number for the conidial concentration but this was affected by increased inoculum density (size, concentration and mycelial contamination), causing a reduction in the actual number of conidia present, compared to the expected. Up to 40-50% of the conidia in the sprayed suspension could not be accounted for when conidium deposition was on a target. This loss could increase to 90-92% when the weed was sprayed under a crop canopy.