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Hybrids from pea chloroplast thioredoxins f and m: physicochemical and kinetic characteristics

Jaramillo, J.L., Chueca, A., Sahrawy, M., Lopez-Gorge, J.
The plant journal 1998 v.15 no.2 pp. 155-163
Escherichia coli, biosynthesis, complementary DNA, immunochemistry, heat stability, fructose-bisphosphatase, recombinant proteins, isoelectric point, amino acid sequences, malate dehydrogenase, Pisum sativum, molecular weight, molecular conformation, cysteine, chloroplasts, plant proteins
Two hybrid thioredoxins (Trx) have been constructed from cDNA clones coding for pea chloroplast Trxs m and f. The splitting point was the AvaII site situated between the two cysteines of the regulatory cluster. One hybrid, Trx m/f, was purified from Escherichia coli-expressed cell lysates as a high yielding 12 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies against pea Trxs m and f and, like the parenteral pea Trx m, displayed an acidic pI (5.0) and a high thermal stability. In contrast, the opposite hybrid Trx f/m appeared in E. coli lysates as inclusion bodies, where it was detected by Western blot against pea Trx f antibodies as a 40 kDa protein. Trx f/m was very unstable, sensitive to heat denaturation, and could not be purified. Trx m/f showed a higher affinity for pea chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and a smaller Trx/FBPase saturation ratio than both parenterals; however, the FBPase catalytic rate was lower than that with Trxs m and f. Surprisingly, the hybrid Trx m/f appeared to be incompetent in the activation of pea NADP-malate dehydrogenase. Computer-assisted models of pea Trxs m and f, and of the chimeric Trx m/f, showed a change in the orientation of the alpha4-helix in the hybrid, which could explain the kinetic modifications with respect to Trxs m and f. We conclude that the stability of Trxs lies on the N-side of the regulatory cluster, and is associated with the acidic character of this fragment and, as a consequence, with the acidic pI of the whole molecule. In contrast, the ability of FBPase binding and enzyme catalysis depends on the structure on the C-side of the regulatory cysteines.