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Structural and functional analysis of the six regulatory particle triple-A ATPase subunits from the Arabidopsis 26S proteasome

Fu, H., Doelling, J.H., Rubin, D.M., Vierstra, R.D.
The plant journal 1999 v.18 no.5 pp. 529-539
Arabidopsis thaliana, adenosinetriphosphatase, plant proteins, multigene family, complementary DNA, yeasts, degradation, mutants, amino acid sequences, peptides, nucleotide sequences, gene expression, messenger RNA, genetic complementation
The 26S proteasome is a multi-subunit ATP-dependent protease responsible for degrading most short-lived intracellular proteins targeted for breakdown by ubiquitin conjugation. The complex is composed of two relatively stable subparticles, the 20S proteasome, a hollow cylindrical structure which contains the proteolytic active sites in its lumen, and the 19S regulatory particle (RP) which binds to either end of the cylinder and provides the ATP-dependence and the specificity for ubiquitinated proteins. Among the approximately 18 subunits of the RP from yeast and animals are a set of six proteins, designated RPT1-6 for regulatory particle triple-A ATPase, that form a distinct family within the AAA superfamily. Presumably, these subunits use ATP hydrolysis to help assemble the 26S holocomplex, recognize and unfold appropriate substrates, and/or translocate the substrates to the 20S complex for degradation. Here, we describe the RPT gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana. From a collection of cDNAs and genomic sequences, a family of genes encoding all six of the RPT subunits was identified with significant amino acid sequence similarity to their yeast and animal counterparts. Five of the six RPT subunits are encoded by two genes; the exception being RPT3 which is encoded by a single gene. mRNA for each of the six proteins is present in all tissue types examined. Five of the subunits (RPT1 and 3-6) complemented yeast mutants missing their respective orthologs, indicating that the yeast and Arabidopsis proteins are functionally equivalent. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the RP, like the 20S proteasome, is functionally and structurally among eukaryotes and indicate that the RPT subunits, like their yeast counterparts, have non-redundant functions.