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The production and quality of tomato concentrates

Hayes, W.A., Smith, P.G., Morris, A.E.J.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 1998 v.38 no.7 pp. 537-564
tomato paste, food quality, food production, vegetable products, ripening, food composition, food processing, washing, sorting, pasteurization, canning, microbial contamination, food contamination, food spoilage, food safety, food grades, food additives, color, food analysis, consistency, separation, rheological properties, flavor, sensory evaluation, Drosophila, larvae, ova, insects, nutrient content, vitamins, dietary minerals, tomato puree, appearance (quality), food paste
The standards and specifications for the quality and composition of tomato concentrates are reviewed. The main quality parameters of tomato puree and paste are color, consistency and flavor. Overall, there is an absence of standardization of methods and instruments to define quality. While color can now be measured objectively, there are currently no standard color requirements for tomato concentrates. Rheological measurements on both tomato juice and concentrates are reviewed; the power law finds wide applicability, although other rheological characteristics, particularly time dependency, have received far less attention and there has been little effort to relate rheological understanding to the commonly used empirical tests such as consistency measurements. The volatiles responsible for flavor and odor have been identified to the point where the natural odor of tomato paste can be imitated. Attempts to develop objective methods as a substitute for sensory assessment are reviewed.