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Influence of incubation temperature on body movements of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) embryos and on size at hatch
- Peterson, R.H., Martin-Robichaud, D.J., Harmon, P.
- Aquaculture research 2004 v.35 no.5 pp. 453-457
- Gadus morhua, cod (fish), marine fish, fish eggs, embryo (animal), embryogenesis, hatching, locomotion, animal behavior, fish larvae, body size, fish culture, mariculture, water temperature
- Body movements of cod (Gadus morhua L.) embryos reared from fertilization to hatch at 5.4 °C were observed at various stages of development and at six experimental temperatures ranging from 0-10 °C. Frequency of cod embryo body movements increased from zero at 42 degree-days post fertilization to maximal at 73-82 degree-days (1 or 2 days prior to hatch). Embryos were most active at 2 °C (mean of 5.5 movements per 10 min), with activity declining to less than 1/10 min at 8-10 °C. Lengths of hatched cod larvae reared at a series of constant temperatures (from 4-10 °C) from fertilization to hatch were greater at lower incubation temperatures. Incubation temperatures of 2-4 °C were found to be optimal for incubation of cod eggs.