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Turfgrass Revegetation on Amended Sea Sand Dredged from the Yellow Sea
- Joo, Y.K., Lee, S.K., Jung, Y.S., Christians, N.E.
- Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2008 v.39 no.11-12 pp. 1571-1582
- land restoration, turf grasses, soil amendments, soil, sand, NPK fertilizers, Zoysia japonica, Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca rubra, Puccinellia distans, mixtures, drought tolerance, vegetation cover, seasonal variation, soil chemical properties, cool season grasses, warm season grasses
- A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimal method for turfgrass revegetation at the new Incheon International Airport, Republic of Korea. The existing soil base was reclaimed sea sand dredged from the Yellow Sea. Ten different soil media main plots were created by treating the sand with combinations of mountain soil, chemical fertilizer [15-11-14 nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K)], peat moss, a wetting agent, pig manure, and composted pine bark. Subplots were established with five turfgrass treatments that included Zoysia japonica (ZJ), Z. sinica (ZS), Z. koreanna (ZK), cool-season grass combination I (CSG I: Festuca arundinacea 30%, Poa pratensis 40%, and Lolium perenne 30%), and cool-season grass combination II (CSG II: Festuca arundinacea 40%, L. perenne 20%, F. rubra 20%, and Puccinellia distans 20%). The highest percentage cover rate for all grass treatments occurred in sea sand treated with 5 cm of mountain soil plus 114 g m-2 of chemical fertilizer. Zoysia japonica had the highest percentage cover rates throughout the study. On 4 July 1998, the turfgrass cover ranking was ZJ (99.5% cover)>ZK (86.7%)>ZS (39.6%)>CSG II (33.3%), CSG I (33.1%). Zoysia japonica also showed the highest drought tolerance among turfgrass species on all soil bases. The treatment that included mountain soil plus chemical fertilizer reduced the pH, EC, alkalinity, and soluble sodium (Na+) by the exchange of calcium (Ca2+) for Na+. The amendment of sea sand with mountain soil and chemical fertilizer, followed by establishment to ZJ, was determined to be the best method of reclamation for the new airport.