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Dietary Cod Protein Reduces Plasma C-Reactive Protein in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women
- Ouellet, Véronique, Weisnagel, S. John, Marois, Julie, Bergeron, Jean, Julien, Pierre, Gougeon, Réjeanne, Tchernof, André, Holub, Bruce J., Jacques, Hélène
- Journal of nutrition 2008 v.138 no.12 pp. 2386-2391
- dietary nutrient sources, cod (fish), C-reactive protein, men, women, insulin resistance, protective effect, biomarkers, lipoproteins, experimental diets, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, blood lipids, adiponectin
- Chronic low-grade inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently, we showed that cod protein (CP) improved insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary CP compared with those of other animal proteins on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins in insulin-resistant subjects. Nineteen Caucasian men and women aged 40-65 y, overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m²), and insulin resistant, rotated in a crossover design and consumed a CP diet and a similar diet containing lean beef, pork, veal, eggs, milk, and milk products (BPVEM) for 4 wk each. Diets differed only in protein source and thus provided equivalent amounts of dietary fibers, monounsaturated fat, PUFA [including (n-3) fatty acids], and SFA. Blood samples were collected before and after each experimental diet. Notably, the CP diet decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; P = 0.021), whereas the BPVEM diet tended to increase it (P = 0.063), leading to a significant difference between diets (P = 0.041). Changes in plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between diets. Plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.0007), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.014), and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.005) were reduced only by the BPVEM diet. Thus, changes in total cholesterol differed between diets (P = 0.040), whereas changes in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.052) and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.075) tended to differ. Changes in all other lipids and lipoproteins did not differ between diets. Therefore, these results show that CP can lower hsCRP, a marker of inflammation associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.