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Dietary Cod Protein Reduces Plasma C-Reactive Protein in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women

Ouellet, Véronique, Weisnagel, S. John, Marois, Julie, Bergeron, Jean, Julien, Pierre, Gougeon, Réjeanne, Tchernof, André, Holub, Bruce J., Jacques, Hélène
Journal of nutrition 2008 v.138 no.12 pp. 2386-2391
dietary nutrient sources, cod (fish), C-reactive protein, men, women, insulin resistance, protective effect, biomarkers, lipoproteins, experimental diets, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, blood lipids, adiponectin
Chronic low-grade inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently, we showed that cod protein (CP) improved insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary CP compared with those of other animal proteins on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins in insulin-resistant subjects. Nineteen Caucasian men and women aged 40-65 y, overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m²), and insulin resistant, rotated in a crossover design and consumed a CP diet and a similar diet containing lean beef, pork, veal, eggs, milk, and milk products (BPVEM) for 4 wk each. Diets differed only in protein source and thus provided equivalent amounts of dietary fibers, monounsaturated fat, PUFA [including (n-3) fatty acids], and SFA. Blood samples were collected before and after each experimental diet. Notably, the CP diet decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; P = 0.021), whereas the BPVEM diet tended to increase it (P = 0.063), leading to a significant difference between diets (P = 0.041). Changes in plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between diets. Plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.0007), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.014), and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.005) were reduced only by the BPVEM diet. Thus, changes in total cholesterol differed between diets (P = 0.040), whereas changes in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.052) and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.075) tended to differ. Changes in all other lipids and lipoproteins did not differ between diets. Therefore, these results show that CP can lower hsCRP, a marker of inflammation associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.