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Evaluation of Different Fertilizer Recommendation Systems on Various Soils and Crops in Hungary

Csatho, Peter, Arendas, Tamas, Fodor, Nandor, Nemeth, Tamas
Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2009 v.40 no.11-12 pp. 1689-1711
fertilizer requirements, soil fertility, soil analysis, environmental protection, field crops, winter wheat, Triticum aestivum, corn, Zea mays, spring barley, Hordeum vulgare, NPK fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crop yield, fertilizer application, application rate, soil types, soil properties, nutrient availability, Hungary
The World Phosphorus Institute (IMPHOS) financed a 3-year program for the testing of various Hungarian fertilizer recommendation systems [the four levels of the new Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC)-Agricultural Research Institute (RIA) system, the Talajerogazdalkodas integrated soil fertility management system, and the intensive MM NAK system developed in the late 1970s by experts from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food] when applied to three major crops (winter wheat, maize, spring barley) grown on three characteristic Hungarian soils (brown forest soil, chernozem, meadow soil). The first six treatments in the experiment represented a classical deficiency experiment, aimed at checking the correctness of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK)-supplying categories determined by the various systems. On all three soils and for all three crops, the IMPHOS experiments confirmed the basic principles of the new cost-saving, environmentally friendly RISSAC-RIA fertilizer recommendation system and the correctness of the methods used for calculating fertilizer rates. The new RISSAC-RIA system resulted in good yields, on par with those obtained using the intensive MEM NAK system, with total NPK rates that were sometimes as little as 40-60% of the intensive recommendations. Consequently, the greatest incomes per unit area were also achieved using the recommendations given by the new, cost-saving, environmentally friendly RISSAC-RIA system.