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Patterns of Food and Nutrient Consumption in Northern Iran, a High-Risk Area for Esophageal Cancer

Islami, Farhad, Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar, Kimiagar, Masoud, Pourshams, Akram, Wakefield, Jon, Goglani, Goharshad, Rakhshani, Nasser, Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush, Salahi, Rasoul, Semnani, Shahryar, Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra, Abnet, Christian C., Kamangar, Farin, Dawsey, Sanford M., Brennan, Paul
Nutrition and cancer 2009 v.61 no.4 pp. 475-483
eating habits, nutrient intake, risk factors, esophageal neoplasms, disease incidence, diet recall, Recommended Dietary Allowances, food groups, rural areas, women, vitamins, urban areas, epidemiological studies, vitamin deficiencies, nutritional adequacy, Iran
Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P < 0.01). Daily intake of vitamins A and C was lower than LTI in 67% and 73% of rural women, respectively. Among rural men, the vitamin intakes were not significantly different from LTIs. Among urban women, the vitamin intakes were significantly lower than RDAs but were significantly higher than LTIs. Among urban men, the intakes were not significantly different from RDAs. Compared to urban dwellers, intake of most food groups and nutrients, including vitamins, was significantly lower among rural dwellers. In terms of vitamin intake, no significant difference was observed between Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnics. The severe deficiency in vitamin intake among women and rural dwellers and marked differences in nutrient intake between rural and urban dwellers may contribute to the observed epidemiological pattern of EC in Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women.