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Effect of dietary organic and inorganic micromineral source and level on sow body, liver, colostrum, mature milk, and progeny mineral compositions over six parities
- Peters, J.C., Mahan, D.C., Wiseman, T.G., Fastinger, N.D.
- Journal of animal science 2010 v.88 no.2 pp. 626-637
- sows, maternal nutrition, dietary minerals, dietary mineral supplements, perinatal period, pregnancy, farrowing, lactation, nutritive value, organic compounds, inorganic compounds, animal performance, dams (mothers), parity (reproduction), body condition, liver function, colostrum, sow milk, piglets, morphogenesis, animal tissues, mineral content, selenium
- A sow study evaluated the effects of 2 dietary micromineral sources (organic or inorganic) and 3 dietary mineral levels [NRC, industry (IND), and IND + Ca:P] with selected sows killed at parities 1, 2, 4, and 6. Three sows per treatment group were killed at weaning (total = 68), and their body and liver, 72 colostrum and milk samples (17 d), 69 full-term stillborn pigs and their livers, and 32 pigs at weaning were analyzed for minerals. Tissue and milk samples from the sows were analyzed as a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates per treatment. Full-term stillborn pig mineral compositions were determined at parities 1, 3, and 5 and evaluated as a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a CRD with 3 replicates per treatment. Weanling pigs from parity 6 sows were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial in a CRD. Sow and pig mineral compositions are reported on an equivalent empty BW and kilograms of liver weight basis. The results indicated that sow body macromineral contents were not affected by dietary micromineral source or level or when the diets contained added Ca and P. Sow body Se increased when dietary organic microminerals increased from the NRC to the IND level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P < 0.01), but there was no increase in those sows fed inorganic microminerals. There were increases in Cu (P < 0.05) and Se as levels increased from NRC to the IND, and there were increases (P < 0.05) in Cu and Zn when the IND + Ca:P diet was fed compared with feeding the IND diet. Increases (P < 0.01) in sow liver Cu, Se, and Zn occurred as microminerals increased from the NRC to the IND level. As parity advanced, there were cubic increases (P < 0.01) in sow body Cu, Fe, and Se, but a quadratic increase in Zn (P < 0.05). There was no clear effect of sow dietary treatments on full-term stillborn pig or liver micromineral contents, except Se (P < 0.01). There was a greater pig body Se content when sows were fed organic microminerals at the greater level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P < 0.01). Colostrum minerals were generally not affected by diet variables, except Se. Colostrum Se was greater when sows were fed the organic micromineral source than the inorganic source at the greater level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P < 0.05). Milk Cu (P < 0.01) and Zn (P < 0.01) increased as dietary level increased. Milk Se was increased when organic Se was fed (P < 0.05) and when the micromineral level was increased (P < 0.01). Weaned pig body Fe (P < 0.01) and Se (P < 0.01) were greater when organic microminerals were fed to the sow, whereas Mn (P < 0.01) and Zn (P < 0.05) increased when the IND level was fed. These results indicate that the dietary micromineral source and level had a minimal effect on sow body and liver mineral contents or in colostrum and pigs at birth, except Se, which was greater when the organic form was fed.