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Interaction of Bacillus species and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in immune or inflammatory signaling from swine intestinal epithelial cells

Aperce, C.C., Burkey, T.E., KuKanich, B., Crozier-Dodson, B.A., Dritz, S.S., Minton, J.E.
Journal of animal science 2010 v.88 no.5 pp. 1649-1656
swine, food animals, intestinal mucosa, epithelial cells, jejunum, intestinal microorganisms, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, animal pathogenic bacteria, bacterial infections, immune response, inflammation, signal transduction, cultured cells, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, probiotics, microbial ecology, feed additives, interleukin-8, bacitracin, neutrophils, chemoattractants, protein secretion, in vitro studies
Previous research evaluated a laboratory strain of Bacillus licheniformis (BL) in a model swine epithelium and found it exerted antiinflammatory effects on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Sal)-induced secretion of IL-8. The current investigation evaluated the antiinflammatory actions of Bacillus bacteria available commercially as feed additives for the swine industry. Three isolates were obtained from the product, 2 Bacillus subtilis (BS1 and BS3) and 1 BL (BL2). Swine jejunal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells were seeded into wells on permeable membrane supports and allowed to form confluent monolayers. Treatments included apical pretreatment with BL, BS1, BL2, or BS3 for 17 h without Sal, and the same Bacillus treatments but with 10⁸ cfu of Sal added in the final hour of Bacillus incubation. Two additional treatments included negative control wells receiving no bacteria (control) and positive control wells receiving only Sal (10 total treatments). After bacterial incubation, wells were washed and fresh medium containing gentamicin was added. Cells were incubated for an additional 5 h, after which apical and basolateral media were recovered for determination of IL-8 and bacitracin. In addition, inserts with epithelial cells that had received Sal were lysed and lysates were cultured to determine treatment effects on Sal invasion. Exposure to Sal alone provoked an increase in IL-8 secretion from IPEC-J2 cells compared with control wells (P < 0.001 for both the apical and basolateral directions). Pretreatment with each Bacillus isolate followed by challenge with Sal reduced Sal-induced IL-8 secretion in both the apical and basolateral compartments compared with wells receiving only Sal (P < 0.001; except for BS3 apical, P < 0.01). The residual presence of bacitracin could be detected only in BL2 and BL2+Sal. Fewer Sal colonies could be cultured from lysates of BL2+Sal than from the Sal, BS1+Sal, and BS3+Sal treatments (P < 0.001). Results indicate that B. subtilis and BL have the ability to intervene in secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 from swine intestinal epithelial cells. This effect on chemokine secretion by gastrointestinal epithelial cells in vitro could not be explained solely by reduced invasion of epithelial cells by Sal.