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Dietary Blueberries Attenuate Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Upregulating Antioxidant Enzyme Expression
- Wu, Xianli, Kang, Jie, Xie, Chenghui, Burris, Ramona, Ferguson, Matthew E., Badger, Thomas M., Nagarajan, Shanmugam
- Journal of nutrition 2010 v.140 no.9 pp. 1628-1632
- blueberries, atherosclerosis, protective effect, apolipoproteins, mice, animal models, physiological regulation, protein synthesis, enzyme activity, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, biomarkers, experimental diets
- Protective effects of blueberries (BB) against atherosclerosis and potential underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in apoE-deficient (apoE⁻ / ⁻) mice. ApoE⁻ / ⁻ mice were fed an AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole BB for 20 wk. The mean lesion area for apoE⁻ / ⁻ mice fed BB was reduced by 39% (P lt 0.001) in the aorta sinus and 58% (P lt 0.001) in the descending aorta compared with CD-fed mice. These atheroprotective effects were independent of the serum lipid profile or total antioxidant capacity (as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity). The concentration of a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F₂-isoprostane, was lower in liver of BB-fed mice (P lt 0.05). Genes analyzed by RT-PCR array showed that 4 major antioxidant enzymes in aorta [superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1, SOD2, glutathione reductase (GSR), and thioredoxin reductase 1] were upregulated in BB-fed mice. Enzyme activities of SOD and GSR were greater (P lt 0.05) in liver and/or serum of BB-fed mice than those of CD-fed mice. In addition, serum paraoxonase 1 activity in serum of BB-fed mice was also greater than that of CD-fed mice (P lt 0.05) at the end of the study. These results suggest a protective effectiveness of BB against atherosclerosis in this apoE⁻ / ⁻ mouse model. The potential mechanisms may involve reduction in oxidative stress by both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant defense.