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Release of bound lipids in cereal starches upon hydrolysis by glucoamylase

Kitahara, K., Tanaka, T., Suganuma, T., Nagahama, T.
Cereal chemistry 1997 v.74 no.1 pp. 1-6
rice, wheat, starch granules, starch, hydrolysis, lipids, fatty acids, phospholipids, amylose, chemical structure, food composition, glucose, corn starch
The raw starch granules from corn, rice, and wheat were hydrolyzed by practically pure glucoamylase (Rhizopus niveus). The bound lipids remaining in the residual starches were investigated, of which the major components of the lipids, free fatty acids (FFA) in corn starch, FFA and phospholipids (PL) in rice starch, and PL in wheat starch were determined. In each case, the bound FFA and PL were decreased to some extent during the initial stage of hydrolysis. During the later stages, the FFA continued to gradually decrease, while the level of PL stabilized. It was interesting that some of the bound lipids were released from the granules upon glucoamylase hydrolysis, differing from the model amylose-lipid complexes. Furthermore, the structures of the residual starches were investigated. The blue value and lambda max of the starches were increased by partial hydrolysis of the starch granules using practically pure glucoamylase. Two gel-permeation chromatography analyses revealed that the relative amount of amylose fraction was increased by glucoamylase hydrolysis, and also that the increments were reduced by the defatting of bound lipids. The results suggest that the increase in amylose fraction is attributable to the existence of bound lipids in the granules.