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Chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional evaluation of plantago (Plantago ovata Forsk)

Romero-Baranzini, A.L., Rodriguez, O.G., Yanez-Farias, G.A., Barron-Hoyos, J.M., Rayas-Duarte, P.
Cereal chemistry 2006 v.83 no.4 pp. 358-362
Plantago ovata, small grains, grain crops, alternative crops, nutritive value, soluble fiber, blood lipids, cholesterol, food composition, energy content, fatty acids, lipid content, amino acids, amino acid composition, protein content, in vitro digestibility, digestibility, albumins, prolamins, globulins, digestible protein, rats, animal models
Plantago ovata F. are small tan-colored seeds with approximately equal to 30% weight husk. Plantago's husk high content of soluble fiber makes it a good lubricant of the intestinal track with demonstrated effects in lowering plasma cholesterol levels in humans and experimental animals. Plantago seeds grown in Northern Mexico were analyzed for proximate composition, combustion heat, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, fatty acids, amino acids, and protein fractionation. In vitro digestibility and digestibility of dry matter, apparent and true digestibility, and net protein ratio (in vivo) were also analyzed. Plantago seeds had 17.4% protein, 6.7% fat, 24.6% total dietary fiber, 19.6% insoluble fiber, 5.0% soluble fiber, and a combustion heat of 4.75 kcal/g. Osborne fractionation (based on solubility) yielded albumin 35.8%, globulin 23.9%, and prolamin 11.7%. The oil from plantago seeds had a high percentage of linoleic acid (40.6%) and oleic acid (39.1%) and a minor proportion of linolenic acid (6.9%). In vitro protein digestibility of the plantago seed was 77.5%, suggesting a highly digestible protein. Lysine content was 6.82 g/100 g of protein, higher than wheat and oats (2.46 and 4.20 g/100 g of protein, respectively). Rat bioassays showed values of 89.6% digestibility of dry matter, 86.0% apparent digestibility, 88.1% true digestibility, and 4.40 net protein ratio corrected (NPRc). The importance of these findings is that plantago whole grain shows favorable nutritional quality when compared with cereals and legumes.