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High frequency of plant regeneration in sunflower from cotyledons via somatic embryogenesis

Fiore, M.C., Trabace, T., Sunseri, F.
Plant cell reports 1997 v.16 no.5 pp. 295-298
Helianthus annuus, cotyledons, somatic embryogenesis, developmental stages, callus, shoots, methodology, culture media, benzyladenine, gibberellic acid, ethanol, dose response, genetic variation, explants, rooting, naphthaleneacetic acid, genotype
A plant regeneration method via somatic embryogenesis of several Helianthus annuus L. genotypes was developed. Starting from cotyledonary explants high frequency embryo induction was obtained following several subcultures on defined media. An appropriate cotyledon developmental stage was identified. Etiolated explants and darkness treatment were necessary to obtain somatic embryos in all tested genotypes. After 20-25 days on somatic induction medium containing an auxin:cytokinin ratio of 1:1, the germination of embryos was induced by a reduction of the hormonal ratio (1:2). Shoots were excised from callus and transferred onto a medium containing various vitamins. The range of embryogenesis frequency was 33-72%, depending on the genotype. High frequency of rooting (49-82%) was obtained using a medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of ancymidol and by a reduction of photoperiod. A large percentage of somatic embryos developed into normal regenerated plants producing viable seeds.