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Oil concentration and fatty acid composition of achenes of North American Helianthus (Asteraceae) species

Seiler, G.J.
Economic botany 1994 v.48 no.3 pp. 271-279
Helianthus annuus, Helianthus, wild plants, seeds, sunflower oil, fatty acids, annuals, perennials, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, Midwestern United States, Great Plains region
Oil concentration and fatty acid composition were determined in achenes of two annual Helianthus species (112 populations) and 11 perennial species (103 populations) from the Great Lakes region and the Central Great Plains of the U.S. The highest average oil concentration was observed in annualH. petiolaris Nutt. with 28.8%, followedbyH. annuus L. with 25.4%. Among the perennial species,H. hirsutus Raf. had the highest average oil concentration with 29.8%. The highest average palmitic (C16: 0) andstearic (C18:0) fatty acids were observed inH. tuberosus L. (6.5 and 3.5%, respectively), while the lowest values were observed inH. pauciflorus Nutt. ssp.subrhomboideus (4.2 and 2.1, respectively). The highest oleic acid (CI8:1) was observed inH. annuus (24.7%) and the highest linoleic (C18:2) was observed inH. pumilus Nutt. with 71.3%. Sufficient variability appears to be present in the wild species for enhancement of oil and fatty acid characteristics for cultivated sunflower.