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Receptor for the F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Xia, Pengpeng, Zou, Yajie, Wang, Yiting, Song, Yujie, Liu, Wei, Francis, David H., Zhu, Guoqiang
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2015 v.99 no.12 pp. 4953-4959
bacteria, binding sites, chromosomes, diarrhea, enterocytes, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, fimbriae, financial economics, genes, host-pathogen relationships, immune response, innate immunity, pathogenicity, piglets, pork industry, receptors
Infection with F4⁺enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) responsible for diarrhea in neonatal and post-weaned piglets leads to great economic losses in the swine industry. These pathogenic bacteria express either of three fimbrial variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, which have long been known for their importance in host infection and initiating protective immune responses. The initial step in infection for the bacterium is to adhere to host enterocytes through fimbriae-mediated recognition of receptors on the host cell surface. A number of receptors for ETEC F4 have now been described and characterized, but their functions are still poorly understood. The current review summarizes the latest research addressing the characteristics of F4 fimbriae receptors and the interactions of F4 fimbriae and their receptors on host cells. These include observations that as follows: (1) FaeG mediates the binding activities of F4 and is an essential component of the F4 fimbriae, (2) the F4 fimbrial receptor gene is located in a region of chromosome 13, (3) the biochemical properties of F4 fimbrial receptors that form the binding site of the bacterium are now recognized, and (4) specific receptors confer susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4 infection in pigs. Characterizing the host–pathogen interaction will be crucial to understand the pathogenicity of the bacteria, provide insights into receptor activation of the innate immune system, and develop therapeutic strategies to prevent this illness.