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Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method
- Nathanail, Alexis V., Syvähuoko, Jenna, Malachová, Alexandra, Jestoi, Marika, Varga, Elisabeth, Michlmayr, Herbert, Adam, Gerhard, Sieviläinen, Elina, Berthiller, Franz, Peltonen, Kimmo
- Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2015 v.407 no.16 pp. 4745-4755
- HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, barley, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, food contamination, metabolites, monitoring, national surveys, nivalenol, oats, quantitative analysis, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, wheat, zearalenone, Finland
- A reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination in cereals of the Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the modified metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, HT-2-3-glucoside, nivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-14-glucoside, zearalenone-14-sulphate, zearalenone-16-glucoside, α-zearalenol-14-glucoside and β-zearalenol-14-glucoside. The ‘dilute and shoot’ approach was used for sample preparation after extraction with acetonitrile:water:acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Separation was carried out using reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was in-house validated according to performance characteristics, established in Commission Regulation EC No 401/2006 and Commission Decision EC No 657/2002, prior to its application in a nationwide survey for the analysis of barley, oat and wheat samples (n = 95) harvested in Finland during 2013. Deoxynivalenol and its glucosylated form were the most abundant of the analytes, being detected in 93 and 81 % of the samples, respectively. Concentrations of deoxynivalenol were unusually high in 2013, especially in oats, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits for unprocessed oats placed on the market for first-stage processing. All modified mycotoxins analysed were detected, and the natural occurrence of some of these compounds (e.g. zearalenone-16-glucoside and nivalenol-3-glucoside) in barley, oats and/or wheat was documented for the first time.